CENTER OF EXCELLENCE IN GENERATIVE MEDICINE | PATHFINDER SCHOLARS

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Phytomedicine Index


Achillea millefolium
Aconitum spp. | Aconitum napellus | Aconitum columbianum | Aconitum carmichaelii
Actaea racemosa | Cimicifuga racemosa | Macrotys racemosa
Allium cepa
Allium sativum
Aloe vera | Aloe barbadensis | Aloe ferox
Althaea officinalis
Angelica sinensis
Apium graveolens
Arctium lappa | Niu bang zi
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Arnica spp.
Asclepias tuberosa
Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco
Astragalus membranaceus
Atropa belladonna
Avena sativa | Avena fatua
Bacopa monnieri
Baptisia tinctoria
Berberis vulgaris | Berberis aquifolium | Mahonia aquifolium | Hydrastis canadensis | Coptis chinensis
Boswellia spp.
Brassica alba | Brassica nigra | Brassica juncea
Bryonia alba
Calendula officinalis
Camellia sinensis
Camellia sinensis
Cannabis sativa | Cannabis indica
Capsella bursa-pastoris
Capsicum frutescens | Capsicum annuum
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Ceanothus americanus | Ceanothus spp.
Centella asiatica
Chamaelirium luteum
Chelidonium majus
Chionanthus virginicus
Cinnamomum zeylanicum | C. verum | C. aromaticum | C. cassia
Coleus forskohlii | Plectranthus barbatus
Commiphora molmol | Commiphora myrrha
Commiphora mukul
Convallaria majalis
Cordyceps sinensis | Ophiocordyceps sinensis
Corydalis spp.
Crataegus spp.
Curcuma longa
Curcurbita pepo
Cynara scolymus
Datura stramonium
Digitalis purpurea
Dioscorea villosa
Echinacea angustifolia | Echinacea purpurea | Echinacea pallida
Eleutherococcus senticosus
Ephedra sinica (and related species) | Ephedra equisetina | Ephedra intermedia
Equisetum arvense
Eriodictyon californicum | Eriodictyon angustifolium | Eriodictyon spp.
Eschscholzia californica
Eucalyptus globulus
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Eupatorium purpureum | Eupatorium maculatum | Eupatorium fistulosum
Euphrasia stricta
Foeniculum vulgare
Frangula purshiana | Rhamnus purshiana | Frangula alnus | Rhamnus frangula
Fucus vesiculosus
Galium aparine
Ganoderma lucidum
Gelsemium sempervirens
Gentiana lutea
Geranium maculatum
Ginkgo biloba
Glycyrrhiza glabra | Glycyrrhiza uralensis
Grindelia spp.
Gymnema sylvestre
Hamamelis virginiana
Harpagophytum procumbens
Humulus lupulus
Hydrangea arborescens
Hyoscyamus niger
Hypericum perforatum | Hypericum spp.
Inula helenium
Iris versicolor
Juglans nigra
Juniperus communis
Larrea tridentata
Lavandula spp.
Leonurus cardiaca
Ligusticum porteri
Ligustrum lucidum
Linum usitatissimum
Lithospermum officinale
Lobelia inflata
Lomatium dissectum
Lycopus virginicus
Matricaria recutita | Matricaria chamomilla
Medicago sativa
Melaleuca alternifolia
Melissa officinalis
Mentha piperita
Mitchella repens
Momordica charantia
Olea europaea
Panax ginseng | Panax quinquefolius
Passiflora incarnata
Pausinystalia johimbe | Corynanthe yohimbe
Petroselinum crispum
Phytolacca americana | Phytolacca decandra
Piper methysticum
Piscidia piscipula | Piscidia erythrina
Plantago lanceolata | Plantago major | P. insularis
Podophyllum peltatum
Prunus africana | Pygeum africanum
Prunus serotina
Pulsatilla vulgaris | Anemone pulsatilla | Anemone pratensis | Anemone patens | Pulsatilla patens
Quercus spp.
Rauvolfia serpentina
Rhodiola rosea
Ricinus communis
Rosmarinus officinalis
Rubus idaeus
Rumex crispus
Salix spp.
Sambucus nigra | Sambucus canadensis
Sanguinaria canadensis
Schisandra chinensis
Scutellaria baicalensis
Scutellaria lateriflora
Selenicereus grandiflorus | Cactus grandifolorus | Cereus grandiflorus
Senna alexandrina | Cassia spp.
Serenoa repens | S. serrulata
Silybum marianum
Smilax spp.
Solidago spp.
Symphytum officinale
Tabebuia avellanedae | Tabebuia impetiginosa
Tanacetum parthenium | Chrysanthemum parthenium
Tanacetum vulgare | Chrysanthemum vulgare
Taraxacum officinale
Theobroma cacao
Thuja occidentalis | Thuja plicata
Thuja occidentalis
Thymus vulgaris
Tilia spp.
Tribulus terrestris
Trifolium pratense
Tussilago farfara
Ulmus rubra
Urtica dioica | Urtica urens
Urtica dioica | Urtica urens
Urtica dioica
Usnea spp.
Vaccinium myrtillus
Valeriana officinalis | Valeriana sitchensis
Veratrum viride
Verbascum thapsus
Verbena officinalis | Verbena hastata
Veronicastrum virginicum | Leptandra virginica
Viburnum opulus | Viburnum prunifolium
Vinca major | Vinca minor
Viscum album
Vitex agnus-castus
Withania somnifera
Zea mays | Yu Mi Xu
Zingiber officinale
Achillea millefolium
Aconitum spp. | Aconitum napellus | Aconitum columbianum | Aconitum carmichaelii
Actaea racemosa | Cimicifuga racemosa | Macrotys racemosa
Allium cepa
Allium sativum
Aloe vera | Aloe barbadensis | Aloe ferox
Althaea officinalis
Angelica sinensis
Apium graveolens
Arctium lappa | Niu bang zi
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Arnica spp.
Asclepias tuberosa
Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco
Astragalus membranaceus
Atropa belladonna
Avena sativa | Avena fatua
Bacopa monnieri
Baptisia tinctoria
Berberis vulgaris | Berberis aquifolium | Mahonia aquifolium | Hydrastis canadensis | Coptis chinensis
Boswellia spp.
Brassica alba | Brassica nigra | Brassica juncea
Bryonia alba
Calendula officinalis
Camellia sinensis
Camellia sinensis
Cannabis sativa | Cannabis indica
Capsella bursa-pastoris
Capsicum frutescens | Capsicum annuum
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Ceanothus americanus | Ceanothus spp.
Centella asiatica
Chamaelirium luteum
Chelidonium majus
Chionanthus virginicus
Cinnamomum zeylanicum | C. verum | C. aromaticum | C. cassia
Coleus forskohlii | Plectranthus barbatus
Commiphora molmol | Commiphora myrrha
Commiphora mukul
Convallaria majalis
Cordyceps sinensis | Ophiocordyceps sinensis
Corydalis spp.
Crataegus spp.
Curcuma longa
Curcurbita pepo
Cynara scolymus
Datura stramonium
Digitalis purpurea
Dioscorea villosa
Echinacea angustifolia | Echinacea purpurea | Echinacea pallida
Eleutherococcus senticosus
Ephedra sinica (and related species) | Ephedra equisetina | Ephedra intermedia
Equisetum arvense
Eriodictyon californicum | Eriodictyon angustifolium | Eriodictyon spp.
Eschscholzia californica
Eucalyptus globulus
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Eupatorium purpureum | Eupatorium maculatum | Eupatorium fistulosum
Euphrasia stricta
Foeniculum vulgare
Frangula purshiana | Rhamnus purshiana | Frangula alnus | Rhamnus frangula
Fucus vesiculosus
Galium aparine
Ganoderma lucidum
Gelsemium sempervirens
Gentiana lutea
Geranium maculatum
Ginkgo biloba
Glycyrrhiza glabra | Glycyrrhiza uralensis
Grindelia spp.
Gymnema sylvestre
Hamamelis virginiana
Harpagophytum procumbens
Humulus lupulus
Hydrangea arborescens
Hyoscyamus niger
Hypericum perforatum | Hypericum spp.
Inula helenium
Iris versicolor
Juglans nigra
Juniperus communis
Larrea tridentata
Lavandula spp.
Leonurus cardiaca
Ligusticum porteri
Ligustrum lucidum
Linum usitatissimum
Lithospermum officinale
Lobelia inflata
Lomatium dissectum
Lycopus virginicus
Matricaria recutita | Matricaria chamomilla
Medicago sativa
Melaleuca alternifolia
Melissa officinalis
Mentha piperita
Mitchella repens
Momordica charantia
Olea europaea
Panax ginseng | Panax quinquefolius
Passiflora incarnata
Pausinystalia johimbe | Corynanthe yohimbe
Petroselinum crispum
Phytolacca americana | Phytolacca decandra
Piper methysticum
Piscidia piscipula | Piscidia erythrina
Plantago lanceolata | Plantago major | P. insularis
Podophyllum peltatum
Prunus africana | Pygeum africanum
Prunus serotina
Pulsatilla vulgaris | Anemone pulsatilla | Anemone pratensis | Anemone patens | Pulsatilla patens
Quercus spp.
Rauvolfia serpentina
Rhodiola rosea
Ricinus communis
Rosmarinus officinalis
Rubus idaeus
Rumex crispus
Salix spp.
Sambucus nigra | Sambucus canadensis
Sanguinaria canadensis
Schisandra chinensis
Scutellaria baicalensis
Scutellaria lateriflora
Selenicereus grandiflorus | Cactus grandifolorus | Cereus grandiflorus
Senna alexandrina | Cassia spp.
Serenoa repens | S. serrulata
Silybum marianum
Smilax spp.
Solidago spp.
Symphytum officinale
Tabebuia avellanedae | Tabebuia impetiginosa
Tanacetum parthenium | Chrysanthemum parthenium
Tanacetum vulgare | Chrysanthemum vulgare
Taraxacum officinale
Theobroma cacao
Thuja occidentalis | Thuja plicata
Thuja occidentalis
Thymus vulgaris
Tilia spp.
Tribulus terrestris
Trifolium pratense
Tussilago farfara
Ulmus rubra
Urtica dioica | Urtica urens
Urtica dioica | Urtica urens
Urtica dioica
Usnea spp.
Vaccinium myrtillus
Valeriana officinalis | Valeriana sitchensis
Veratrum viride
Verbascum thapsus
Verbena officinalis | Verbena hastata
Veronicastrum virginicum | Leptandra virginica
Viburnum opulus | Viburnum prunifolium
Vinca major | Vinca minor
Viscum album
Vitex agnus-castus
Withania somnifera
Zea mays | Yu Mi Xu
Zingiber officinale
 

Crataegus spp.



Latin NameCrataegus spp.
Common NameHawthorn
Primary Actions Cardiovascular tonic | Anti-oxidant | Connective tissue tonic | Hypotensive (mild) | Astringent
Secondary Actions Diuretic (mild) | Nutritive | Positive inotrope
Indications/ Symptoms Hypertension (mild) | Hypertension (moderate) | Atherosclerosis | Cardiac muscle weakness | Heart (rapid and feeble action) | Valvular insufficiency | Cardiac hypertrophy | Angina pectoris | Stasis (venous) | Endocarditis | Congestive heart failure | Coronary artery disease | Cerebral circulation disturbances | Peripheral vascular disease | Hypotension | Arrhythmia | Mitral regurgitation | Pain (cardiac) | Dyspnea | Emotional (broken heart/closed heart) | Premature ventricular contractions | Mitral valve prolapse | Post myocardial infarction | Sprain | Musculoskeletal strain | Musculoskeletal injury (recent injury) | Post physical trauma | Post operation | Rheumatoid arthritis
Constituents Amines | Flavonoids | Phenolic acids | Proanthocyanidins | Tannins | Ascorbic acid
Energetics
Taste Sweet | Sour | Astringent
Low Dose RecommendedNo
Not Safe: PregnancyUncertain
Not Safe: LactationUncertain
ContraindicationsPregnancy category B1 | Lactation category C | Considered a very safe herb in large amounts for long periods of time
Side EffectsMay potentiate activity of cardiac glycoside herbs and Digoxin-may need to adjust medications
NotesStrengthens cardiac muscle, valves and circulatory insufficiency | For hypertension it dilates coronary vessels, increasing functional capacity of heart | Maintains healthy arteries, veins and heart by strenthening and protecting connective tissue found in the heart and endothelial lining of blood vessels --> gives structures resiliency against injury, disease and normal wear and tear of aging | Impoves circulation to extremeties by lowering the resistance to blood flow in peripheral blood vessels | Reduces cardiac plaque formation (mechanism unknown) | Increases tensile binding strength of connective tissue in general and protects against oxidative damage | Increases coronary blood flow, mild ACE inhibition, positive inotropic action and antioxidant | Use adjunctively to treat mild to moderate congestive heart failure, mild to moderate hypertension, angina coronary artery disease, atrial arrythmias, premature ventricular contractions, mitral valve prolapse and post myocardial infarction recovery | Can correct valvular weakness and rhythm issues d/t increasing blood supply back to heart and through enhancing connective tissue crosslinking | Needs to be taken long term for best results (at least 3 months) | TCM=uses Shan Zha (different species of cratageus) berries, considered sweet, sour and slightly warm, eliminates stagnant heart blood, builds heart qi, tonifies spleen/stomach and dissipates food accumulation, promotes digestion eliminates food stagnation and is useful to treat epigastric and abdominal fullness, distention, abdominal pain and diarrhea, best used to promote digestion after eating red meat or greasy/fatty foods, activates blood circulation, disperses blood stagnation and is used to treat cardiovascular disorders including hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina and hypercholesterolemia
Preparation/ DosageInfusion (leaf and flower)=1 Tbs/c TID | Decoction (berries)=1 Tbs/c TID | Tincture (1:2)=3-5 ml TID | Solid extract (recommended for optimal results)=1/4-1/2 tsp BID-TID
Parts UsedBerry | Flower | Leaf
References
  • Asher GN, Viera AJ, Weaver MA, et al. Effect of hawthorn standardized extract on flow mediated dilation in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2012;12:26.
  • Dalli E, Colomer E, Tormos MC, et al. Crataegus laevigata decreases neutrophil elastase and has hypolipidemic effect: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 6-15-2011;18(8-9):769-775.
  • Dalli E, Valles J, Cosin-Sales J, et al. Effects of hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) on platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. Thromb.Res 2011;128(4):398-400.
  • Francis MJ, Doherty RR, Patel M, et al. Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens septic arthritis following puncture with a Coxspur Hawthorn thorn. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49(7):2759-2760.
  • Harris EJ. Retained Hawthorn fragment in a child's foot complicated by infection: diagnosis and excision aided by localization with ultrasound. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2010;49(2):161-165.
  • Hosseinimehr SJ, Mahmoudzadeh A, Azadbakht M, et al. Radioprotective effects of Hawthorn against genotoxicity induced by gamma irradiation in human blood lymphocytes. Radiat.Environ.Biophys. 2009;48(1):95-98.
  • Mahmood ZA, Sualeh M, Mahmood SB, et al. Herbal treatment for cardiovascular disease the evidence based therapy. Pak J Pharm Sci 2010;23(1):119-124.
  • Moon HI, Kim TI, Cho HS, et al. Identification of potential and selective collagenase, gelatinase inhibitors from Crataegus pinnatifida. Bioorg.Med Chem Lett. 2-1-2010;20(3):991-993.
  • Rasmussen P. Hawthorn--Crataegus monogyna (common hawthorn) or Crataegus laevigata (midland hawthorn; Crataegus oxyacantha); also known as haw, thornapple, maythorn, whitethorn. J Prim.Health Care 2011;3(1):63-64.
  • Raudonis R, Jakstas V, Burdulis D, et al. Investigation of contribution of individual constituents to antioxidant activity in herbal drugs using postcolumn HPLC method. Medicina (Kaunas.) 2009;45(5):382-394.
  • Shi KQ, Fan YC, Liu WY, et al. Traditional Chinese medicines benefit to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol.Biol Rep. 2012;39(10):9715-9722.
  • Von Holubarsch CJ, Niestroj M, Wassmer A, et al. [Hawthorn extract WS 1442 in the treatment of patients with heart failure and LVEF of 25%-35%]. MMW.Fortschr.Med 7-1-2010;152 Suppl 2:56-61.
  • Zand J, Lanza F, Garg HK, et al. All-natural nitrite and nitrate containing dietary supplement promotes nitric oxide production and reduces triglycerides in humans. Nutr Res 2011;31(4):262-269.
  • Zick SM, Vautaw BM, Gillespie B, et al. Hawthorn Extract Randomized Blinded Chronic Heart Failure (HERB CHF) trial. Eur J Heart Fail. 2009;11(10):990-999.
  • Zumdick S, Deters A, and Hensel A. In vitro intestinal transport of oligomeric procyanidins (DP 2 to 4) across monolayers of Caco-2 cells. Fitoterapia 2012;83(7):1210-1217.


Code by Peter D'Adamo, ND. Portions of the data used by this program are from the Bountiful Herbs Database. Obviously, this program is not a substitute for the services of a health professional and is not actually designed nor intended to be used to diagnosis, prevent or treat disease.